Here are a few terms people find confusing…
Aperture: The hole that allows light to come into the camera. Determined by the lens and the camera settings. Point of confusion: It seems backwards, but the aperature setting is determined by the aperature size or indicator. An aperature setting of 2.8 is larger than an aperture of 5.6, 5.6 is larger, (allows in more light) than an aperature setting of 8, 11, 16, etc. The rule is: The smaller the aperture number, the more light it lets into the camera See also Aperture Priority.
Aperture Priority Mode: The technical name for the “A” setting on most cameras. If you select the aperture, the camera will usually select the Shutter speed and ISO setting for the image to be made.
Depth of Field: This one can be confusing. Depth is not measured vertically, but horizontally. A wide depth of field means that you can see most of the image sharp and in focus, from the closest object to the farthest object. This is generally obtained by using a high number on your aperture, (f16-f22 or higher).
Green box: The setting on your camera similar to the “P” or Program Mode, with one very large exception. The green box or “Automatic” Mode will not allow the camera to shoot in”RAW”, but will shoot the images in “JPEG”.
JPEG: I’ll let you Google the acronym description. I’ll tell you that JPEG is an industry recognized standard for compressing or making the images smaller on the memory card. JPEGs shoot faster and write to your memory card faster because they’re smaller files. Basically, what happens is this. When you shoot the picture, the camera doesn’t select individual dots in the picture, but averages blocks or squares close to one another and saves that group of dots as a square in your image. If you’ve ever blown up a JPEG too large, you’ve noticed blocks inside of your picture. These blocks are referred to as JPEG artifacts. If your camera can shoot in Camera RAW, RAW files save individual dots in the picture, instead of squares of “averaged” data. Every single dot in the picture has its own color information. But this comes with a price, RAW files are uncompressed, or “RAW”, and can require up to 10 times the memory of a JPEG. The more colors and tones in an image, the bigger the RAW file will be. Example: A JPEG image using only 1 Megabyte of memory can require 8 to 10 Megabytes (Mb) of memory as a RAW file. RAW files will load, save, and take up much more space on your memory card.
Manual Mode: The “M” setting on your camera. This setting allows the user as much control over the camera as the camera is willing to give up. Changes can usually be made to the aperture, shutter speed and ISO, allowing for more artistic or creativity to go into the photo. “M” is the setting photographers should aspire to, but it can take some time to get there.
Program mode: The “P” setting on your camera dial or menu. The “P” as, almost any photographer will tell you, does not stand for “Professional”. What happens is this, when you select the”p” on the dial or menu, the camera will use its internal computer to evaluate the scene before it, make all of the necessary adjustments based on the sensor, amount of light, etc. and choose everything for you.